When supposedly credible advocacy groups post this kind of nonsense, we get nowhere and Americans are mislead. None of the above is true!
All of the above processes have been applied to health plans for more than fifty years. I first processed claims for an employer plan with deductibles and co-pays in 1961. The deductible of $100 in 1961 would be $2,173 in 2019 just reflecting medical inflation ($4,346 for a family). All prescriptions drugs were subject to the deductible with a 20% coinsurance on the retail price.
Self-insured employers typically initiate the changes in health benefits. Under such plans there is no profit motive or financial risk for the insurance or other company administering the plan and paying claims. The goal is to manage costs. To the extent this is effective it is reflected in premiums and employee payroll deductions.
No insurance company has a policy of denying valid claims to increase profits. Of course errors occur in provider billing and claim processing sometimes resulting in denial of a valid claim. All plans by law must include a claim appeal process, included expedited appeals when necessary and required independent review.
Deductibles and co-pays are designed to assure the insured have some involvement in cost sharing. Congress recently changed Medigap policies to prevent coverage for Part B co-pays for the same reason.
Preauthorizations are designed to minimize unnecessary health care spending and often have the benefit of questioning procedures, despite how it is perceived by patients and physicians.
Networks are intended to manage costs by negotiating lower fee allowances. It is a concept that goes back to the start of health benefits in the 1940s.
Bottom line; you can’t run any health plan, public or private without employing these strategies in one form or another and also keep the program affordable.